- Plural of insecticide
An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. They include ovicides and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in the 20th century. Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; and others are concentrated in the food chain. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides.
Classes of agricultural insecticidesThe classification of insecticides is done in several different ways:
- Systemic insecticides are incorporated by treated plants. Insects ingest the insecticide while feeding on the plants.
- Contact insecticides are toxic to insects brought into direct contact. Efficacy is often related to the quality of pesticide application, with small droplets (such as aerosols) often improving performance.
- Natural insecticides, such as nicotine and pyrethrum, are made by plants as defences against insects. Nicotine based insecticides have been barred in the U.S. since 2001 to prevent residues from contaminating foods. http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/insect-mite/mevinphos-propargite/nicotine/nicotine_tol_1201.html
- Inorganic insecticides are manufactured with metals and include arsenates copper- and fluorine compounds, which are now seldom used, and sulfur, which is commonly used.
- Organic insecticides are synthetic chemicals which comprise the largest numbers of pesticides available for use today.
- Mode of action -- how the pesticide kills or inactivates a pest -- is another way of classifying insecticides. Mode of action is important in predicting whether an insecticide will be toxic to unrelated species such as fish, birds and mammals.
Heavy metals, e.g. lead, mercury, arsenic, as well as plant toxins such as nicotine have been used for many years. Various plants have been used as folk insecticides for centuries, including tobacco and pyrethrum. Some farmers are reporting successfully using spray of crudely fermented alcohol as an effective insecticide.
OrganochloridesWith the rise of the modern chemical industry it was possible to form organochlorides, such as chlorinated hydrocarbons. The organochlorides used in chemical warfare tend to be more potent electrophiles than those used as insecticides. For instance mustard gas (sulfur mustard, HD) is a potent alklating agent which uses neighbouring group participation of the sulfur to make the alkyl chloride a stronger electrophile. It is likely that the chlorine in DDT is used to tune the lipophilicity of the compound, and to alter the shape and electrostatic effects involved in the interactions of the insecticide and the biomolecules in the target organism. For instance DDT works by opening the sodium channels in the nerve cells of the insect.
OrganophosphatesThe next large class was the organophosphates, both the insecticides and the chemical warfare agents (such as sarin, tabun, soman and VX) work in the same way. All these compounds bind to acetylcholinesterase and other cholinesterases. This results in disruption of nervous impulses, killing the insect or interfering with its ability to carry on normal functions. Carbamate insecticides have similar toxic mechanisms but have a much shorter duration of action and are thus somewhat less toxic.
Organophosphates have an additive toxic effect to wildlife, so multiple exposures to the chemicals amplifies the toxicity.
Sprayed insecticides may drift from the area to which it is applied and into wildlife areas, especially when it is sprayed aerially. in which worker bees from a beehive or Western honey bee colony abruptly disappear. Loss of pollinators will mean a reduction in crop yields. (bug found in stored cereal)
- International Pesticide Application Research Centre (IPARC)
- Pestworld.org - Official site of the National Pest Management Association
- Classification of insecticides
- Streaming online video about efforts to reduce insecticide use in rice in Bangladesh. on Windows Media Player, on Real Player
- How Insecticides Work - Has a thorough explanation on how insecticides work.
- University of California Integrated pest management program
insecticides in Arabic: مبيد حشرات
insecticides in Breton: Dilastezer
insecticides in Bulgarian: Пестицид
insecticides in Catalan: Insecticida
insecticides in Czech: Insekticid
insecticides in Danish: Insekticid
insecticides in German: Insektizid
insecticides in Estonian: Insektitsiid
insecticides in Spanish: Insecticida
insecticides in Esperanto: Pesticido
insecticides in French: Insecticide
insecticides in Galician: Pesticida
insecticides in Italian: Pesticida
insecticides in Hebrew: הדברת מזיקים
insecticides in Lithuanian: Insekticidas
insecticides in Dutch: Insecticide
insecticides in Japanese: 殺虫剤
insecticides in Norwegian: Insektmiddel
insecticides in Polish: Insektycydy
insecticides in Portuguese: Inseticida
insecticides in Romanian: Pesticide
insecticides in Russian: Инсектициды
insecticides in Simple English: Insecticide
insecticides in Slovenian: Pesticid
insecticides in Serbian: Инсектициди
insecticides in Finnish: Insektisidi
insecticides in Swedish: Bekämpningsmedel
insecticides in Vietnamese: Thuốc trừ sâu
insecticides in Ukrainian: Інсектициди
insecticides in Chinese: 殺蟲劑